Thursday, May 21, 2020

Propaganda for Patriotism - Free Essay Example

Sample details Pages: 5 Words: 1538 Downloads: 10 Date added: 2019/02/20 Category Politics Essay Level High school Tags: Patriotism Essay Did you like this example? Documentary is a unique form of expression, one that aims towards a group of people, appeals to an even more specific subgroup of that people, meanwhile captures the attention of mass audiences despite the filmmakers concern of their viewing. A propaganda documentary influences viewers in a precise way that convinces them to react based on subjective content. Michael Moore’s film, Fahrenheit 9/11 (2004) takes on the roots and effects of the Bush administration, the Iraq War, and the September 11, 2001 terrorist attacks from a liberal perspective. Don’t waste time! Our writers will create an original "Propaganda for Patriotism" essay for you Create order Moore’s film was distributed internationally, made for the American people, but supports the left-view American view. Leni Riefenstahls motion picture Triumph of the Will (1935) was exposed to Nazi Germany, appealed to join young well-able men to join the Nazi army, and ultimately fed the idolization of Adolf Hitler. Moore and Riefenstahl have incredibly divergent party allegiances, these documentary filmmakers use opposing cinematic strategies to appeal to the individual citizen’s best interests, but ultimately ignite a sense of patriotism in their citizens. Commonly characterized as the sophisticated and intellectual film genre, the informative undertone of documentary filmmakingno matter how artistically decoratedshould raise suspicions as to why this specific documentary has been made. Leni Riefenstahl was commissioned by the Nazi Germany government to create Triumph of the Will during a time where Nazi leaders were concerned for the public image of Nazism and Adolf Hitler. The film was intended to show Adolf Hitler as a heroic figure and savior to Germany during this time period. Triumph of the Will was deemed a commercial production to distance the Nazi party’s involvement in the project, the Nuremberg rally was used to project an invincible Nazi government and military to deject their enemies and ignite supporters of Nazism. Riefenstahl refrained from common documentary contrasting to explicitly show more and more shots of the flourishing Nazi Germany, in particular during the annual Nuremberg rally in 1934, instead she built powerful image upon powerful image. This film, being a government sponsored film in support of the present regime, did not seek to provoke empathy as do some documentaries, Hitler and the Nazi soldiers were portrayed to be flawless characters. Everything about this films production and execution centers around power and wealth. The streams of crowds, affluent city, Christian church, multiple cameras in rally, etc. This film had a singular message, which was for everyone to know the wealth, power, and success of Nazi Germany, it was a vision of what every German citizen should make of the Nazi regime. The film techniques such as tracking shots, low angle shots, and aerial shots used were not unique to cinema at the time but the film’s complex production and use of scope uniquely reflected the unyielding superiority of Nazi’s agenda for power and wealth. The Nuremberg Rally was filmed with numerous cameras planted throughout the parade, emphasizing the scope of massively well-organized crowds of either soldiers or supporters. This film is indulgent in order and mass, and its excessive budget was a reflection of Nazi Germany’s flourishing economy. In film critic and theoretician Bill Nichols’ classic text, â€Å"Introduction to Documentary† (2001), Nichols would categorize Triumph of the Will documentary mode to be observational within his establishment of six different types of documentary modes. Observational documentary is aimed towards depicting reality as it is, or what the filmmaker wants to portray as everyday life reality. The mode revolves around the fact that the filmmaker is not intrusive on the subjects, however Riefenstahl presents this documentary as an observational documentary, but in reality much of the film was curated. The lack of narration supported the Nazi party’s goal to distance their direct touch on the filmmaking process in order for it to appear to be a more legitimate representation of them. This detachment of filmmaker and film allowed the viewers to feel less instructed, but more able to develop their own conclusions on the Nazi regime based on what they saw. As mentioned pri or, Nazis were not in the best place during the time this film was made, a handful of their leaders were assassinated and the concentration camps were just being developed. The lack of expository elements allowed the Nazi’s to represent themselves in a better light without context as to what is actually going on within the party. This serves as true in the sense that Riefenstahl did obtain her footage in the direct cinema style of filmmaking, despite claiming the film was cinema verite. She didn’t incorporate narration of the images she was recording, the distinction between diegetic and nondiegetic parade music is foggy. The shots of Hitler’s arrival to Nuremberg, the city’s famous annual rally, and the prospering infrastructure of Nazi Germany seem to be conveniently acquired with a simple camera present. In reality, these scenes were embellished as much as Riefenstahl could manage, for example the seemingly invigorating moment Hitler arrived off the plane was actually a moment curated for the film. In Triumph of the Will, patriotism and nationalism was developed in its viewers through an observational lense that anonymously presented the magnitude of control the Nazi regime had, making any of the wavering or untrustworthy German army members feel threatened by the numbers and fierce l eadership. The lack of self reflexivity of the filmmaker, legitimizes the visuals of Nazi Germany and the power and order they seemed to have possessed amongst their people. The indirect address of Riefenstahls subjects and prolonged takes lead the audience to join her as the â€Å"fly on the wall.† Another political propaganda film not directly hailed for its advanced cinematic elements but the complexity in which cinema was used to document is Moore’s Fahrenheit 9/11. The film is the highest grossing documentary of all time, Moore delves into the early years of the Bush Administration and the US government’s suspicious behaviors within the War on Terror and rationalizations of the Iraq War. Triumph of the Will was a film generated in the midst of hope that the Nazi regime would continue to flourish into the future and it was commissioned by the government in support of the regime. In contrast to Fahrenheit 9/11, where Moore is speaking against his government and wants the audience to reflect on past events in question to how power and wealth was being played out. However, Moore is still engaging in film propaganda and the criticism lies in the favor of the left-view politics and parties, but isn’t explicitly trying to empower us but rather inform us. It is important to refer to Bill Nichol’s establishment of documentary modes to understand how these films differ in execution and impact. Michael Moore engages in a performative mode in his film, which combines numerous different filmmaking styles and modes to best nourish the subject matter and provoke a conclusive and relatively emotional reaction to what the viewer is seeing. Fahrenheit 9/11 contains first-hand accounts of politicians, citizens, victims, and Moore himself in relation to the political and historical problems of the US government. The emphasis on personal experience is pivotal to a performative documentary, in comparison to Triumph of the Will, where citizen individuality was not celebrated yet still attracted patriotism and nationalism. While this documentary is performative, it includes reflexivity and expository choices. Moore’s subjective, personal understandings of what is happening in the grand scale of American politics is a powerful tool for v iewers to engage in postmodernism rhetoric on what is really happening in America, without the in depth logistical context. The use of compilation is rampant in this Fahrenheit 9/11, Moore has derived archived footage of key moments in US government decision making and utilized it for evidence and ironic punch lines. As in expository documentary, Moore enlists himself as the film’s â€Å"Voice of God,† being the authority narrator, navigating the audience members throughout the film, another element in which the viewer hands their trust to him, Moore’s famous approach to simplifying his rhetoric is with humor and sarcasm, most often towards the countrys elites, but nonetheless is it taken as a trustworthy voice to left-wing supporters. The editing revolves around the verbal continuity of Moore’s â€Å"storytelling† and builds the viewer’s investment in a resolution to the recent corruption in the presidential administration. Reflexivity is also a present mode in the film, Moore is frequently in front of the camera demonstrating his own investigative nature in find the missing parts of his knowledge and conclusion to the film’s subjects, meanwhile taking us on a journey that will ultimately end the film. The film is not reflexive in the sense that Moore demonstrates the organization of the production, but we follow him as he creates the film’s footage. In conclusion, both films are propaganda films, but they are using the opposite cinematic techniques to invoke an ultimate sentiment of invigorated patriotism towards the filmmaker’s favored political party leaving the individual (in the party’s favor) a more fierce and polarized citizen. One film is looking to expand the government’s longevity, and reflect this in the film’s complex production, hoping solidify the party’s advancement. The other film criticizes a government administration’s actions, weakening their front, analyzing the past.

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

The Book of Psalms Essay - 1672 Words

There are 150 psalms in the Book of Psalms that were written over the span of 800 years. Most of the Psalms written were made to be sung. There are two main genres of Psalms, which are laments and hymns. David is know to have written 73 psalms, Asaph wrote 12, the sons of Korah wrote 11, Solomon wrote 2, Moses wrote 1 and 50 are anonymous . Although 50 were anonymous, David was certainly the author of the majority of the Psalms. The title of the Psalm is not always a direct indicator of who the author was because the preposition â€Å"of,† â€Å"to,† and â€Å"for†. They are all the same in Hebrew. For example, if the title of the psalm was â€Å"Psalm of David† it could have been a psalm that he wrote himself. It also could have been one that†¦show more content†¦At this time in the ancient world a tent was used as God’s holy place, and this tent was located on the holy hill. The psalmist also asks in verse 1 who may go on the holy hill where the temple is located. It seems as though the psalmists would actually like to go to this holy place for themselves but is reserved about actually going because he knows that God has strict limitations as to who can actually enter the holy temple. The next part of the psalm directly answers the two questions asked in verse 1. In verse 2 the David gives a general answer of the type of person that is able to dwell in God’s place. In later verses the psalmist goes on to describe in detail exactly what kind of person will be admitted into the temple located on Zion . Verse 2 states that the acceptable person is one who can walk blamelessly, do what is right, and a person who speaks the truth. This answer is very general, but it does a great job of explaining what kind of person can enter the temple. It does not mention that the person who wants to enter the temple has to be completely perfect. That is an important thing because no human is perfect and if it took perfection to worship in the temple, it would be an empty place. This answer to what kind of person may enter is just explaining that at the point of entrance into the temple it is necessary for all wrong doings to have been forgiven and all sins to have been repent ed of. No man can walkShow MoreRelatedAnalysis Of The Book Lamentations, Psalm 1372559 Words   |  11 PagesHe is their shepherd. And during this time there have been a lot of powerful feelings being expressed whilst interpreting their faith. A few examples of this movement during Exile would include the Book of Lamentations, Psalm 137, the Book of Habakkuk and finally the Book of the Prophet Obadiah. The Book of Lamentations is considered to be five poems that were said by tradition to be composed by the prophet Jeremiah after he knew Jerusalem would fall. The poems manage with the obliteration of theRead MoreThe Communication Principle in the Book of Psalms Essay665 Words   |  3 PagesThe communication principle that is outlined in this paper is about communicating lies and what the outcome of lying is. In the book of Psalm, it explains very clear about the bibles stance on lying. Psalm 59:12-13:12 reads, â€Å"For the sins of their mouths, for the words of their lips, let them be caught in their pride. For the curses and lies they utter, 13 consume them in your wrath; consume them till they are no more. Then it will be known to the ends of the earth that God rules over Jacob.† SpeakingRead MorePsalms As Torah And The Psalter1727 Words   |  7 PagesThe book â€Å"Psalms As Torah† provides insight and perspective about the Psalms, and the Psalter. Its main premise is to explore the ethical perspective of the Psalms, likewise, to highlight the ethical instruction provided. Psalms As Torah is a book whereby the author seeks to highlight the premise that the Psalms, while thought of as songs or hymns, are in addition a handbook, that essentially serve as guidelines for the law of the Old Testament . The application of ethics, along with the law ofRead MoreChapter 9 : Appeals For Divine Intervention1745 Words   |  7 PagesThe book â€Å"Psalms As Torah† provides both insight and perspective as to the Psalms, and the Psalter. Its main premise is to explore the ethical perspective to the Psalms, moreover to highlight the ethical instruction provided. Psalms As Torah is a book in which the author seeks to bring attention to the premise that the Psalms, while mostly thought of as songs or hymns, are in addition a handbook, providing guidelines to the law of the old testament . The application of ethics, along with the lawRead MoreChapter 9 : Appeals For Divine Intervention1724 Words   |  7 PagesIntroduction The book â€Å"Psalms As Torah† provides insight and perspective about the Psalms, and the Psalter. Its main premise is to explore the ethical perspective of the Psalms, likewise, to highlight the ethical instruction provided. Psalms As Torah is a book whereby the author seeks to highlight the premise that the Psalms, while thought of as songs or hymns, are a guidebook, which essentially serves as guidelines for the law of the Old Testament . The application of ethics, along with the lawRead MoreEarly Church Worship Practices And The Psalms929 Words   |  4 Pages3. Early church worship practices and the Psalms The purpose of this section is to clarify major historical foundations of Christian worship practiced by the early church and its relation to the book of Psalms. The primary objective is to explain the influence of the Psalms on the worship life of the early church. By analyzing the New Testament context, believers can have a clear perception of the meaning of the book of Psalms in the worship life of the early church. Therefore, scholars assume thatRead MoreOtcl 505 Final Essay1100 Words   |  5 PagesLiberty Theological Seminary    Word Study: Final: â€Å"Wicked† from Psalm 1:1 A Paper Submitted to Dr. Eric Mitchell In Partial Fulfillment Of the Requirements for the Course Hebrew Language Tools OTCL 505    6 May 2013 STEP 1 1.Word Choice: â€Å"wicked†, from Psalm 1:1. Transliteration: rasha Hebrew: × ¨Ã– ¸Ã— ©Ã– ¸Ã— Ã— ¢ NASB95: wicked NIV: wicked NLT: wicked MSG: not exactly translated (Sin Saloon Dead-End Road, Smart-Mouth College) 2. Strong’s Number: H7563, Could not findRead MoreThe Psalter Reclaimed Reflection Essay1722 Words   |  7 Pagesii Introduction The book of Psalms has been divided into five major sections, like the Pentateuch, with each sections ending with a doxology. It has the most chapters in the Bible, including the longest and the shortest chapters. In completing the reading assignment, a greater insight and understanding about the book of Psalms was gained. In reading the Psalms, one is able to identify the character of God and His steadfast love to those who fear Him. The book of Psalms allows the reader to communicateRead MoreThe Psalms Essay examples601 Words   |  3 PagesThe Psalms were written by several Authors under the inspiration of the Spirit of God. The Oldest psalm preserved for us is Psalm Ninety. Other Authors of the Psalms include: David, who is attributed to writing Seventy Three of the Psalms. Asaph was the music director during the reigns of David and Solomon. He wrote twelve psalms. They wrote twelve psalms. Solomon is the Author of two of the Psalms. He composed Psalm Seventy-two and Psalm One Hundred and Twenty-Seven. Heman a singer in the timeRead MoreNotes On The Messiah And The Psalms By Richard P. Belcher Jr.907 Words   |  4 PagesChristological Approach to the Psalms and then describes the five major categories of Psalms relating to Jesus the Messiah: the (1) Royal Psalms, (2) Typological – Prophetic Psalms, (3) Prophetic – Typological Psalms, (4) Prophetic – Messianic Psalms, and (5) Eschatological Psalms. Christological Approach to the Psalms The Christological Approach to the Psalms is presented and described by Richard P. Belcher Jr. in his book The Messiah and the Psalms: Preaching Christ from all the Psalms. The Christological

The Beauty of the Tropical Monsoon Climate Free Essays

The tropical monsoon climate is found in those regions where there is a complete seasonal reversal of winds. It is mainly found beyond the equatorial region between 10Â ° and 25Â ° North and South of the Equator. On-shore summer winds blowing from over tropical warm oceans generate the abundant precipitation, while the off-shore winds from over land make the weather dry during winter. We will write a custom essay sample on The Beauty of the Tropical Monsoon Climate or any similar topic only for you Order Now The most clearly defined monsoon climates are located in the coastal areas of the eastern and southern Asia. For example, India, Burma, Bangladesh, Indochina, Southern China and the Philippines experience a tropical monsoon climate. Surface relief, direction of the coast line and the extension of the monsoon into middle-latitudes cause a number of sub-types of the monsoon climate found over this most widespread continent. Rains are abundant and intense in tropical monsoon areas. But there is a distinct dry season, though very short. However, the amount of precipitation during the rainy season is so heavy that it more than gives back the absence of rainfall for a few months. Soils retain moisture to support the plant cover. In the tropical monsoon climate summer is generally the rainy season. During the high-sun period the on-shore winds bring a lot of moisture from over the tropical warm oceans to the land. Wherever these moisture-laden winds are forced to rise, abundant precipitation results. However, the coastal regions, if backed by highlands, receive the maximum amount of precipitation. It is important that the leeward sides of the coastal ranges suffer from the rain shadow effects. During the winter monsoon period, January and February are the driest months in South-east Asia. The distribution of rainfall in the subcontinent is more uneven than elsewhere. The rainfall decreases from east to west and from north to south in so much so that the western and north-western regions have almost semi-arid climate. The monsoon circulation in South-east Asia is characteristically governed by the migration of ITC. Because of differential heating of the continent and the adjoining oceans, there is a complete reversal of pressure gradient over the huge landmass of South-east Asia. During winter there are centers of high pressure over the continent so that there is a flow of air towards the oceanic low pressure centers. These winds are termed ‘the winter monsoon’ in the eastern and southern Asia. In summer, the huge landmass of Asia develops low pressure centers. These centers are reinforced by the ITC which moves suddenly to the north into the Indian subcontinent. Under these conditions the sea-to-land pressure gradients are established resulting in on-shore winds in eastern and southern Asia. These winds pick up huge quantities of moisture from the warm tropical oceans. Thus, the summer monsoons blowing from southwest Asia and eastern Asia are capable of giving heavy rains wherever conditions are favourable. As the winter approaches, the low-pressure centers are gradually replaced by the high pressure systems. The change in precipitation is what gives this climate type its name. Precipitation only falls during the summer months, usually from May-August with June and July having the heaviest rain. The whole dry season usually has less than 4 inches of rain. During the wet season, at least 25 inches will fall. Some areas of Tropical Wet and Dry in the path of monsoon winds can receive incredible amounts of rain due to seasonal winds called monsoon. Seasonality of its precipitation is the hallmark and most well-known characteristic of the monsoon climate. Though the annual amount of precipitation is quite similar to that of the rain forest, monsoon precipitation is concentrated into the high-sun season. Maritime equatorial and maritime tropical air masses travel from the ocean on to land during the summer, where they are uplifted by either convection or convergence of air to induce condensation. The low-sun season is characterized by a short drought season when high pressure inhibits precipitation formation. In the case of the Asian monsoon, the replacement of the thermal low with the subsidence of the Siberian High suppresses uplift. Air masses that dominate this period are dry given their continental origin or stability. A distinct dry season from October to May, when the temperature are lower, the interior of Asia is a region of high pressure. Wind blow over the land in a north east direction , carrying little or no moisture with them. These cool , dry North East Monsoon winds blows toward areas of low pressure and do not bring rain. A wet season from June to September, when the wind change in direction, the wind blow in the region of low pressure. Winds blow across the equator and blow over the oceans, they are warmer and carry a lot of moisture. They bring alot of rain. Total rainfall can reach 600 m The grasslands of Tropical Wet and Dry support many herbivores (plant eaters) who graze in the grasses. Most of these animals usually migrate and run in large herds for safety. Examples include wildebeests, gazelles, zebras, elephants, giraffes, etc. Many carnivores (meat eaters) follow and hunt the herbivores. Lions, cheetahs, hyenas, and large birds hunt the savannas of Africa. In the coastal regions of the tropical monsoon climate the temperatures are uniformly warm. Air temperatures show a marked annual cycle. The highest temperatures in this climate are recorded during summer just before the arrival of rains.. Average temperatures for the summer months vary from 27Â ° to 32Â °C. During winter, however, the average temperature at inland stations may vary from 10Â ° to 26. 7Â °C. In higher latitudes the drop in the minimum temperatures is large. During the wet seasons, there is extensive cloud cover. This blocks most of the incoming solar radiation during the day, and traps the outgoing radiation at night. Thus, the diurnal temperature range is small. Range of temperature in the tropical monsoon climate is a bit larger than that in the equatorial climate. The annual range registers a variation ranging from 2Â °C to 11Â °C. The diurnal range in the coastal regions is less than what it is in the continental interiors. Another characteristic feature of the diurnal range of temperature is that it is considerably higher in the dry summer months than in any other part of the year. The monsoon circulation in South-east Asia is characteristically governed by the migration of ITC. Because of differential heating of the continent and the adjoining oceans, there is a complete reversal of pressure gradient over the huge landmass of South-east Asia. During winter there are centers of high pressure over the continent so that there is an outflow of air towards the oceanic low pressure centers. These winds are termed ‘the winter monsoon’ or the ‘dry monsoon’ in the eastern and southern Asia. In summer the huge landmass of Asia develops low pressure centers. These centers are reinforced by the ITC which moves suddenly to the north into the Indian subcontinent to 20Â ° or 25Â ° N latitude. Under these conditions the sea-to-land pressure gradients are established resulting in on-shore winds in eastern and southern Asia. These winds pick up huge quantities of moisture from the warm tropical oceans. Thus, the summer monsoons blowing from southwest in the southern Asia and southeast in eastern Asia are capable of giving heavy rains wherever conditions are favourable. As the winter approaches, the low-pressure centers are gradually replaced by the high pressure systems. In fact, the so-called winter monsoons are nothing but the re-establishment of the northeast trades which are dry except in those areas where they reach after passing over the sea. Rains are abundant and intense in tropical monsoon areas. But there is a distinct dry season, though very short. However, the amount of precipitation during the rainy season is so heavy that it more than gives back the absence of rainfall for a few months. Soils retain moisture to support the plant cover. In the tropical monsoon climate summer is generally the rainy season. During the high-sun period the on-shore winds bring a lot of moisture from over the tropical warm oceans to the land. Wherever these moisture-laden winds are forced to rise, abundant precipitation results. However, the coastal regions, if backed by highlands, receive the maximum amount of precipitation. It is important that the leeward sides of the coastal ranges suffer from the rain shadow effects. During the winter monsoon period, January and February are the driest months in South-east Asia. The distribution of rainfall in the subcontinent is more uneven than elsewhere. The rainfall decreases from east to west and from north to south in so much so that the western and north-western regions have almost semi-arid climate. In the tropical monsoon climate, the amount and distribution of precipitation determine, to a large extent, the type of natural vegetation. Towards the equator-ward margins, where the precipitation is heavy, the tropical monsoon forest resembles the tropical rainforest. However, because of the seasonality of rainfall, species are limited in the monsoon forests. Towards the drier margins, rainforests are replaced by more sparse jungles, thorn forests and savanna grasslands. In India, for example, there are different types of natural vegetation ranging from the tropical rain-forests of the Malabar and Assam to the deciduous forests of the areas with moderate rainfall to thorny bushes of the more arid regions with scanty rainfall. Teak is the most valuable timber, and it is found in Burma and certain other parts of India. Besides, shisham, sal, mahua, mango tree, jamun, neem, and many more species of trees are found in the deciduous forests which shed their leaves before the commencement of the long dry season in order to conserve moisture. In fact, the deciduous trees of the monsoon forest are a fine illustration of their adaptability to a wet-dry climate in which rainy season with adequate water surplus alternates with a dry season with soil-water deficit. These forests are generally more open than the tropical rainforests. The trees are less tall and the branching starts at a lower level. Tree species may vary from 30 to 40 in a small area. Trees have thick and rough barks as moisture conserving device. Tree tops are fairly large and round. Outside India, the typical monsoon forest is found in Burma, Thailand and Cambodia. In West Africa and in Central and South America there are large areas of deciduous monsoon forest bordering the equatorial rain forests? In more humid areas where the forest is dense, the flying and climbing species of the animal life of the equatorial forest are dominant. But in drier regions where the trees are widely spaced with grasslands, large animals constitute the animal kingdom. Some of these animals are carnivores, while others are herbivores, such as, tigers, lions, leopards, wolves and jackals, elephants, wild buffalo, rhinoceros, deer, and antelopes. How to cite The Beauty of the Tropical Monsoon Climate, Papers

Sunday, April 26, 2020

Tchaikovsky The Man And His Music Essays - Music,

Tchaikovsky: The Man And His Music ATchaikovsky=s music is not only one of the cornerstones of Russian musical society and world music . . . It is at the same time a creative and technical encyclopedia to which every Russian composer has reference in the course of his own work,@ commented Dimitri Shostakovich.1 This was a typical view held by Tchaikovsky=s contemporaries. He was well known and well respected, especially in his later years. In addition, Tchaikovsky was recognized as the most expressive Romantic composer in Russia.2 He was often idolized and put on a pedestal, particularly during his tour of the United States in 1891 when he conducted concerts of his own works in some of the leading concert halls. Tchaikovsky brought national attention to the Russian musical culture and composers. From this period forward Russian music was well received. Tchaikovsky did indeed make a great impact in Russia and around the world. Peter Ilich Tchaikovsky, born in Votkinsk, Russia on May 7, 1840, was part of a family with comfortable financial circumstances. His father was a mining engineer and he was strongly attached to his mother. He first entered into the musical world at the age of five when he was given his first instruction on the piano. In spite of these lessons and Tchaikovsky=s love for music it never occurred to his parents to devote his life to music. Instead, at the age of ten, his family moved to St. Petersburg where they enrolled him in the School of Jurisprudence. Nine years later, in 1859, he passed into the Ministry of Justice as a clerk. He still loved music although it did not prove to be a major part of his life during this period. He was a member of the school choir and took piano lessons, but none of his instructors suspected a budding genius.3 A great tragedy that would prove to have a major impact on his life occurred while he was in St. Petersburg. When he was fourteen years old, a major cholera epidemic was raging through Russia, a quite common occurrence during his lifetime. His mother contracted the disease and subsequently died. Tchaikovsky was completely shattered by her death. AIt is likely that the emotional imbalance that characterized Tchaikovsky=s throughout his life dates from this [emailprotected] He remained a clerk for three years. He hated his job but he worked feverishly at it for he worked hard at every task he was given. He continued to be drawn into the music world and he took piano and theory lessons. Finally, in 1862, he quit his job and devoted the rest of his life to music which he began by entering the St. Petersburg Conservatory. He graduated with a silver medal in 1865. After graduation he was unsure of what to do until 1866 when Nicholas Rubenstein offered him the job of professor of harmony at the newly formed Moscow Conservatory. It was here that he wrote his first serious works which included AA Festival Overture on the Danish National Hymn,@ his First Symphony in G AWinter Daydreams,@ and his first opera AThe [emailprotected] Showing his desire for perfection he tore up the opera because he was dissatisfied with it and it wasn=t until 1949 that it was revived.5 Tchaikovsky=s first masterpiece was composed from 1869-1870. It was a symphonic fantasy based on Shakespeare=s Romeo and Juliet. ARomeo and [emailprotected] was the first of Tchaikovsky=s works in which his superbly unique style is finally formed.6 ARomeo and [emailprotected] shows Tchaikovsky=s ability to portray a particular mood or emotion through his music. It is thought that this ability was stimulated by his only love affair with the well known soprano Desiree Artot. One day she was in Warsaw and she met a baritone there. He proposed to her and she accepted without every giving another thought to Tchaikovsky. What makes this curious is the fact that this composer, who was generally regarded as sensitive and hot tempered, was able to forget her quite easily and continue on with his life.7 Tchaikovsky=s ability to put Desiree Artot out of his mind so easily stems from his homosexual tendencies which left him with Aa profound sense of guilt . . .

Wednesday, March 18, 2020

Noëls Vocabulary, Traditions and Decorations

Noà «ls Vocabulary, Traditions and Decorations Whether you are religious or not, Christmas, Noà «l (pronounced â€Å"no el†) is an important holiday in France. Since the French don’t celebrate Thanksgiving, Noà «l is really the traditional family gathering. Now, many things have been said about Christmas in France, and its particular traditions such as the thirteen desserts, but many of these traditions are regional, and unfortunately tend to disappear with time.   Right now, across France, here are seven traditions you could be expecting: 1. Le Sapin de Noà «l - The Christmas Tree For Christmas, traditions asks that you go get a Christmas Tree â€Å"un sapin de Noà «l†, decorate it and set it in your house. Some people would plant theirs back in their yard. Most will just get a cut tree and throw it away when it is dry. Nowadays, many people prefer to have a synthetic tree you can fold and reuse every year. â€Å"Les dà ©corations (f), les ornements (m)† are more or less precious but it is mostly in the US that I’ve heard the traditions of passing on ornements through generations. It is not a very common thing in France. Its not really clear when to set up the sapin de Noà «l. Some set it on Saint Nicks day (December 6th) and remove it on the 3 King Day (lEpiphanie, January 6th). Le sapin de Noà «l - Christmas treeLes aiguilles de pin - pine needlesUne branche - a brancheUne dà ©coration - a decorationUn ornement - an ornamentUne boule - a ball / an ornamentUne guirlande - a garlandUne guirlande à ©lectrique - an electrical garlandL’à ©toile - the star 2. La Couronne de Noà «l - Christmas Wreath Another Christmas Tradition is to use wreaths on your doors, or sometimes as a table centrepiece. This wreath may be done of twigs, or of a fir branch, may have glitter, feature fir cones and if placed on a table, often surrounds a candle. Un centre de table - a centrepieceUne couronne - a wreathUne brindille - a twigUne branche de sapin - a fir branchUne pomme de pin - a fir coneUne bougie - a candleUne paillette - a glitterDe la neige artificielle - artificial snow 3. Le Calendrier de l’Avent - Advent Calendar This is a special calendar for kids, to help them count the days before Christmas. Behind each number is a door, which reveals a drawing, or a nook with a treat or a little toy. This calendar is usually hung in a communal room as to remind everybody of the countdown before Christmas (and keep an eye on the â€Å"door† openings so that the kids won’t just eat all the chocolate before Christmas...) Un calendrier - a calendarL’Avent - AdventUne porte - a doorUne cachette - a hiding spotUne surprise - a surpriseUn bonbon - a candyUn chocolat - a chocolate 4. La Crà ¨che de Noà «l - The Christmas Manger Nativity Another important Christmas tradition in France is the nativity: a little house with Mary and Joseph, an ox and a donkey, the star and an angel, and eventually baby Jesus. The nativity set can be larger, with the 3 kings, many shepherds and sheep and other animals and village people. Some are very old and in the South of France, the little figurines are called â€Å"santons† and can be worth quite a lot of money. Some family make a paper crà ¨che as a project for Christmas, others have a tiny little one somewhere in their house, and some churches would have a live nativity scene during the Christmas mass. Traditionally, baby Jesus is added on December 25th in the morning, often by the youngest child of the household. La crà ¨che - the manger/ nativityLe petit Jà ©sus - baby JesusMarie - MaryJoseph - JosephUn ange - an angelUn boeuf - an oxUn à ¢ne - a donkeyUne mangeoire - a mangerLes rois mages - the 3 kings, the 3 wise menL’à ©toile du berger - the star of BethlehemUn mouton - a sheepUn berger - a shepherdUn santon - manger figurines made in the South of France 5. About Santa, Shoes, Stockings, Cookies and Milk In the old days, children would place their shoes next to the fireplace and hope to get a little present from Santa, such as an orange, a wooden toy, a little doll. Stockings are used instead in the Anglo-saxon countries.   In France, most new houses do not have a fireplace, and the tradition of placing your shoes by it has totally disappeared. Although he does bring the presents on his sleigh, in France what Santa does is not that clear: some think he comes down the chimney himself, some believe he sends a helper or just magically places the gifts on the shoes (if he is an old-fashioned Santa) or under the Christmas tree. In any case, there is no clear tradition of leaving cookies and milk for him†¦ Maybe a bottle of Bordeaux and a toast of foie gras? Just kidding†¦ Le Pà ¨re Noà «l - Santa (or Saint Nicolas in the North-East of France)Le traineau - the sleighLes rennes - reindeersLes elfes - elvesLe Pà ´le Nord - North Pole 6. Christmas Cards and Greetings It’s customary in France to send out Christmas/ Happy New Year cards to your friends and family, although this tradition is disappearing over time. If its better to send them before Christmas, you have until January 31st to do it. Popular Christmas greetings are: Joyeux Noà «l - Merry ChristmasJoyeuses fà ªtes de Noà «l - Merry ChristmasJoyeuses fà ªtes - Happy Holidays (more Politically Correct since not Religious) 7. Les Marchà ©s de Noà «l - Christmas Markets in France Christmas Markets are little villages made up of wooden stalls (called chà ¢lets) which pop up in the center of towns in December. They typically sell decorations, local products and vin chaud (mulled wine), cakes, biscuits and gingerbreads as well as many handcrafted items. Originally common in the North-East of France, they are now popular throughout France - there is a huge one on les Champs Elysà ©es in Paris.

Monday, March 2, 2020

History of Papermaking From Papyrus to Dixie Cups

History of Papermaking From Papyrus to Dixie Cups The word paper is derived from the name of the reedy plant papyrus, which grows abundantly along the Nile River in Egypt. However, true paper is made of pulped cellulose fibers like wood, cotton or flax. First There Was Papyrus Papyrus is made from the sliced sections of the flower stem of the papyrus plant, pressed together and dried, and then used from writing or drawing. Papyrus appeared in Egypt around 2400 B.C. Then There Was Paper A courtier named Tsai-Lun, from Lei-yang in China, was the first recorded inventor of paper circa 105 A.D. Tsai-Lun presented paper and a papermaking process to the Chinese Emperor and that was noted in the imperial court records. There may have been papermaking in China earlier than the above date, but inventor Tsai-Lun did much for the spread of papermaking technology in China. Chinese Papermaking The ancient Chinese first made paper in the following fashion. Plant fibers such as hemp were soaked and beaten into a sludgeThe sludge was strained through a cloth sieve attached to a frame that also served as a drying platform for the resulting paper Newsprint Charles Fenerty of Halifax made the first paper from wood pulp (newsprint) in 1838. Charles Fenerty was helping a local paper mill maintain an adequate supply of rags to make paper when he succeeded in making paper from wood pulp. He neglected to patent his invention and others did patent papermaking processes based on wood fiber. Corrugated Papermaking - Cardboard In 1856, Englishmen, Healey and Allen, received a patent for the first corrugated or pleated paper. The paper was used to line mens tall hats. American, Robert Gair promptly invented the corrugated cardboard box in 1870. These were pre-cut flat pieces manufactured in bulk that opened up and folded into boxes. On December 20, 1871, Albert Jones of New York NY, patented a stronger corrugated paper (cardboard) used as a shipping material for bottles and glass lanterns. In 1874, G. Smyth built the first single sided corrugated board making machine. Also in 1874, Oliver Long improved upon the Jones patent and invented a lined corrugated cardboard. Paper Bags The first recorded historical reference to grocery paper bags was made in 1630. The use of paper sacks only really started to take off during the Industrial Revolution: between 1700 and 1800. Margaret Knight (1838-1914) was an employee in a paper bag factory when she invented a new machine part to make square bottoms for paper bags. Paper bags had been more like envelopes before. Knight can be considered the mother of the grocery bag, she founded the Eastern Paper Bag Company in 1870. On February 20, 1872, Luther Crowell also patented a machine that manufactured paper bags. Paper Plates Paper foodservice disposables products were first made at the beginning of the 20th century. The paper plate was the first single-use foodservice product invented in 1904. Dixie Cups Hugh Moore was an inventor who owned a paper cup factory, located next door to the Dixie Doll Company. The word Dixie was printed on the doll companys front door. Moore saw the word every day, which reminded him of dixies, the ten-dollar bank notes from a New Orleans bank that had the French word dix printed on the face of the bill. The bank had a great reputation in the early 1800s. Moore decided that dixies was a great name. After getting permission from his neighbor to use the name, he renamed his paper cups Dixie Cups. It should be mentioned that Moores paper cups first invented in 1908 were originally called health cups and replaced the single repeat-use metal cup that had been used with water fountains.

Saturday, February 15, 2020

Case study Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2250 words - 3

Case study - Essay Example inhibitory or excitatory) and determine the specific behavior of the receptor. There are four NTs important with reference to alcohol effect and dependence, the excitatory NT glutamate, the inhibitory NT GABA (gamma- aminobutyric acid) & the two NTs involved in the reward process: Dopamine and serotonin. In initial exposure, alcohol induces production of dopamine, which onsets the encoding of these incidences as environment linked memories in cortex of brain. It also influences the excitatory and inhibitory NTs which in absence of alcohol, maintain a balance. Under the influence of alcohol, an important subset of glutamate (N-methyl D-aspartate, NMDA) is inhibited, thus causing inhibition of excitatory impulse.The primary effect of alcohol, however is on NT GABA: its inhibitory effect is enhanced, resulting in suppresing neuronal activity of receptor cell. Here one of the key features of brain comes into play, that is adaptation. Adaptation in the same system, i.e. homologous adaptation results with repeated exposure to alcohol, and thus a tolerance is developed, GABA receptors become less responsive to GABA and higher alcohol concentrations are required to achieve the same level of suppression. Upon withdrawl of alcohol, GABA receptors still remain less responsive and hence resulting in an imbalance in favor of excitatory NT. The situation is further aggravated by the enhanced activity of excitatory NT glutamate, the receptors for which remain elevated even after withdrawl of alcohol. Both these effects have the cumulative effect of hyperexcitability, which leads to craving for alcohol and withdrawl symptoms. Added to this is the hetrologous adaptation of brain, i.e the homeostatic response in one system as result of changes in another system. It is very difficult to discern these changes more so because they are not mutually exclusive. And therefore doubts arise as to which one of these neurochemical pathway is actually responsible for